Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) may be a hormonal disorder common among women of reproductive age. Women with PCOS may have infrequent or prolonged menstrual periods or excess male hormone (androgen) levels. The ovaries may develop numerous small collections of fluid (follicles) and fail to regularly release eggs.
The exact cause of PCOS is unknown. Early diagnosis and treatment along side weight loss may reduce the danger of long-term complications like type 2 diabetes and heart condition.
Signs and symptoms of PCOS often develop round the time of the primary menstrual period during puberty. Sometimes PCOS develops later, for instance , in response to substantial weight gain.
Signs and symptoms of PCOS vary. A diagnosis of PCOS is formed once you experience a minimum of two of those signs:
Ø Irregular periods. Infrequent, irregular or prolonged menstrual cycles are the foremost common sign of PCOS. For example, you would possibly have fewer than nine periods a year, quite 35 days between periods and abnormally heavy periods.
Ø Excess androgen. Elevated levels of male hormone may end in physical signs, like excess facial and hair (hirsutism), and infrequently severe acne and male-pattern baldness.
Ø Polycystic ovaries. Your ovaries could be enlarged and contain follicles that surround the eggs. As a result, the ovaries might fail to function regularly.
PCOS signs and symptoms are typically more severe if you're obese.
When to see a doctor
See your doctor if you've got concerns about your menstrual periods, if you're experiencing infertility or if you've got signs of excess androgen like worsening hirsutism, acne and male-pattern baldness.
The exact cause of PCOS isn't known. Factors that might play a role include:
Ø Excess insulin - Insulin is that the hormone produced within the pancreas that permits cells to use sugar, your body's primary energy supply. If your cells become immune to the action of insulin, then your blood glucose levels can rise and your body might produce more insulin. Excess insulin might increase androgen production, causing difficulty with ovulation.
Ø Low-grade inflammation - This term is employed to explain white blood cells' production of drugs to fight infection. Research has shown that ladies with PCOS have a kind of low-grade inflammation that stimulates polycystic ovaries to supply androgens, which may cause heart and vessel problems.
Ø Heredity - Research suggests that certain genes could be linked to PCOS.
Ø Excess androgen - The ovaries produce abnormally high levels of androgen, resulting in hirsutism and acne.
Complications of PCOS can include:
Ø Gestational diabetes or pregnancy-induced high blood pressure
Ø Miscarriage or premature birth
Ø Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis — a severe liver inflammation caused by fat accumulation in the liver
Ø Metabolic syndrome — a cluster of conditions including high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels that significantly increase your risk of cardiovascular disease
Ø Type 2 diabetes or prediabetes
Ø Sleep apnea
Ø Depression, anxiety and eating disorders
Ø Abnormal uterine bleeding
Ø Cancer of the uterine lining (endometrial cancer)
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