About the appendix
The appendix may be a pouch-like tube that's attached to the cecum, which is that the first section of the massive intestine or colon. The appendix averages 10 centimeters (about 4 inches) long. It’s considered a part of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Generally thought to possess no significant function within the body, the appendix could also be a neighborhood of the lymphatic, exocrine, or endocrine systems.
Appendix cancer occurs when healthy cells within the appendix change and grow out of control. These cells form a growth of tissue, called a tumor. A tumor is often cancerous or benign. A cancerous tumor is malignant, meaning it can grow and spread to other parts of the body. Another name for appendix cancer is appendiceal cancer. A benign tumor means the tumor can grow but won't spread.
Types of appendix tumors
Ø Neuroendocrine tumor
Ø Appendiceal mucoceles
Ø Colonic-type adenocarcinoma
Ø Signet-ring cell adenocarcinoma
Ø Goblet cell carcinomas/Adenoneuroendocrines
Appendix Cancer: Symptoms and Signs
People with appendix cancer may experience the subsequent symptoms or signs. Sometimes, people with appendix cancer don't have any of those changes. Or, the explanation for a symbol could also be a special medical condition that's not cancer.
Ø Appendicitis, which is inflammation of the appendix
Ø Ascites, which is fluid within the abdomen
Ø Pain within the abdomen or pelvis area
Ø Increased girth (size of the waistline), with or without a protrusion of the navel (bellybutton)
Ø Changes in bowel function
Ø Infertility, which is that the inability to possess a toddler
Appendix Cancer: Diagnosis
Doctors use many tests to seek out, or diagnose, cancer. They also do tests to find out if cancer has spread to a different a part of the body from where it started. If this happens, it's called metastasis. for instance , imaging tests can show if the cancer has spread. Imaging tests show pictures of the within of the body. Doctors can also do tests to find out which treatments could work best.
For most sorts of cancer, a biopsy is that the only sure way for the doctor to understand if a neighborhood of the body has cancer. during a biopsy, the doctor takes little sample of tissue for testing during a laboratory. If a biopsy isn't possible, the doctor may suggest other tests which will help make a diagnosis.
This section describes options for diagnosing appendix cancer. Not all tests listed are going to be used for each person. Your doctor may consider these factors when choosing a diagnostic test:
Ø The sort of cancer suspected
Ø Your signs and symptoms
Ø Your age and general condition
Ø The results of earlier medical tests
In addition to a physical exam, the subsequent tests could also be wont to diagnose appendix cancer:
Biopsy. A biopsy is that the removal of little amount of tissue for examination under a microscope. Other tests can suggest that cancer is present, but only a biopsy can make a particular diagnosis. A pathologist then analyzes the sample(s). A pathologist may be a doctor who focuses on interpreting laboratory tests and evaluating cells, tissues, and organs to diagnose disease.
Computed tomography (CT or CAT) scan. A CT scan takes pictures of the within of the body using x-rays taken from different angles. A computer combines these pictures into an in depth , cross-sectional view 3-dimensional or 3-D that shows any abnormalities or tumors. A CT scan are often wont to measure the tumor’s size. Sometimes, a special dye called a contrast material is given before the scan to supply better detail on the image. This dye are often injected into a patient’s vein or given as a pill or liquid to swallow.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An MRI uses magnetic fields, not x-rays, to supply detailed images of the body. MRI are often wont to measure the tumor’s size. A special dye called a contrast material is given before the scan to make a clearer picture. This dye are often injected into a patient’s vein or given as a pill to swallow.
Ultrasound. An ultrasound uses sound waves to make an image of the interior organs.
Radionuclide scanning (OctreoScan or 68Ga-DOTATATE PET scan). These tests are used for neuroendocrine tumors and not other sorts of appendix cancers. alittle amount of a radioactive, hormone-like substance that's interested in a neuroendocrine tumor is injected into a vein. A special camera is then wont to show where the radioactive substance accumulates. This procedure is beneficial in detecting spread of a neuroendocrine tumor.
Appendix Cancer: Risk Factors
A risk factor is anything that increases a person’s chance of developing cancer. Although risk factors often influence the event of cancer, most don't directly cause cancer. Some people with several risk factors never develop cancer, while others with no known risk factors do. Knowing your risk factors and talking about them together with your doctor may assist you make more informed lifestyle and health care choices.
The explanation for appendix cancer is unknown, and no avoidable risk factors are identified. The subsequent factors may raise a person’s risk of developing appendix cancer:
Age. The sole consistent risk factor for various sorts of appendix cancer is increasing age. Appendix cancer is rare in children.
Sex. Neuroendocrine tumors of the appendix are more common in women.
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