What is hyperpigmentation?
Hyperpigmentation occurs when the skin produces more melanin, the pigment that provides skin its color. This can make spots or patches of skin appear darker than surrounding areas.
Hyperpigmentation is a common skin condition. It affects people of all skin types. Some sorts of hyperpigmentation, including melasma and sun spots, are more likely to affect areas of skin that face sun exposure, including the face, arms, and legs. Other sorts of hyperpigmentation form after an injury or skin inflammation, like cuts, burns, acne, or lupus. These can occur anywhere on the body.
Having extra pigment in some areas of skin is typically harmless but can sometimes indicate another medical condition.
Causes of hyperpigmentation
The cause of hyperpigmentation depends on the type. The most common causes of hyperpigmentation are:
The body produces more melanin to guard the skin from prolonged exposure to the sun. This can cause dark spots or patches on the skin called age spots or sun spots.
Areas of skin can darken after people have had inflammation of the skin. This can include acne, eczema, lupus, or an injury to the skin. People with darker skin are more likely to develop post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation.
Darker patches of skin can form when people experience hormonal changes. This type of hyperpigmentation is common during pregnancy.
Reactions to drug use
Certain medications, like antimalarial drugs and tricyclic antidepressants, can cause hyperpigmentation. In these cases, patches of skin may turn gray.
Chemicals in topical treatments also can sometimes cause hyperpigmentation.
Treatments For Hyperpigmentation
1. Topical Creams
Topical creams are the first line of treatment for hyperpigmentation. Be according to the utilization of creams or serums and expect visible results only after weeks or months of usage.
Hydroquinone may be a skin lightening agent that functions by reducing the quantity of melanin within the skin.
B. Azelaic Acid
Acne causes inflammation and may leave the skin with hyperpigmentation. Azelaic acid treats discoloration and is a leave-on gentle exfoliant. It is one among the safest and effective treatments for hyperpigmentation.
C. Kojic Acid
Kojic acid may be a natural skin lightening agent derived from a fungus. It inhibits the production of tyrosine, an amino acid required for melanin synthesis.
Retinoids is a broad term used for vitamin A derivatives. Most common forms of retinoids are retinol and tretinoin. They are a miracle ingredient in skin care known for his or her incredible benefits like anti-aging and skin lightening.
E. Vitamin C
Vitamin C or vitamin C may be a powerful antioxidant that reduces hyperpigmentation caused by sun damage. It functions by inhibiting the activity of enzyme tyrosinase that is responsible for melanin synthesis.
Niacinamide may be a vitamin B3 derivative that helps in treating hyperpigmentation caused by sun damage. It also helps in production of collagen.
2. Cosmetic Procedures
These are usually performed by a certified dermatologist in their office and require professional equipment. Some of your options are:
Intense pulsed light h4 Intense pulse light (IPL) or photo facials are performed in a dermatologist's office or a medical spa. Powerful and rapid flashes of sunshine penetrate into the skin where it breaks down the melanin . The tiny fragments of melanin rise to the surface of the skin.
A. Chemical Peels
Chemical peeling are often described because the controlled chemical burning of the skin. It uses chemicals like glycolic acid (alpha hydroxy acid) or lactic acid to remove the top layers of the skin . This peels away dark patches or hyperpigmented skin and allows fresh skin cells to push up the surface.
B. Laser Therapy
If your hyperpigmentation is deeper, consider a laser resurfacing treatment. Light beams are targeted at the skin to remove the epidermal layers of the skin. Look for medical advice to know if your skin is compatible for this type of laser therapy.
Microdermabrasion is a dermatologic treatment that uses a hand held machine attached to an abrasive. When this machine is rolled on the skin, it removes the top layer of the skin and the associated pigmentation . The procedure is performed in several sittings for maximum benefit.
3. Home Remedies
Even though home remedies for hyperpigmentation treatment are found effective by many of us , they are doing not contain scientific proof. Nevertheless you can give these a try:
A. Aloe Vera
The active ingredient in burn plant is aloin, which helps in depigmenting the skin. Apply pure aloe vera gel before sleeping and rinse the next morning. Repeat until you discover visible changes within the skin.
Licorice root extract has a lively compound called glabridin that features a lightening effect on the skin.
C. Green Tea
Green tea contains polyphenols that help in inhibiting tyrosinase activity. You can choose between a spread of topical skin care products that contain tea.
Diagnosis Of Hyperpigmentation
Hyperpigmentation is diagnosed through physical examination by a licensed dermatologist. To understand the sort and severity of hyperpigmentation, your dermatologist may recommend biopsy.
Wood’s lamp examination is completed to rule out other skin pigment disorders like vitiligo. The procedure involves the utilization of sunshine to illuminate certain areas of your skin and is performed during a dark room.
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