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Abnormal labor and delivery : Overview

What are the stages of labor?

Labor happens in three stages and may 
actually begin weeks before you give birth:

The first stage starts once contractions begin and continues until you’re fully dilated, which suggests 
being dilated 10 centimeters, or 4 inches. This means your cervix has opened completely in preparation for childbirth. The second stage is that the active stage, during which you start to push downward. It starts with complete dilation of the cervix and ends with the birth of your baby. The third stage is also known as the placental stage. This stage begins with the birth of your baby and ends with the completed delivery of the placenta.


What is abnormal labor?

Abnormal labor could also be 
mentioned asdysfunctional labor, which simply means difficult labor or childbirth. When labor slows down, it’s called protraction of labor. When labor stops altogether, it’s called arrest of labor.


Types of Abnormal Labor

The following sorts of 
abnormal labor may occur at any point during the three stages of labor:


Uterine hypocontractility

Labor may start out well but stop or stall later if the uterus fails to contract sufficiently. This type of abnormal labor is typically 
mentioned as uterine inertia or uterine hypocontractility. Medications that lessen the intensity or frequency of the contractions can sometimes cause it. Uterine hypocontractility is commonest in women browsing labor for the primary time. Doctors usually treat the condition with oxytocin to reinforce labor. However, your doctor will carefully monitor this condition before supplying you with oxytocin.


Cephalopelvic disproportion

If labor is still slow or stalled after your doctor gives you oxytocin, your baby’s head may be too large to fit through your pelvis. This condition is commonly called cephalopelvic disproportion (CPD).

Unlike uterine hypocontractility, your doctor can’t correct CPD with oxytocin, so labor can’t progress normally after treatment. As a result, women who experience CPD give birth by caesarean delivery. Cesarean delivery happens through an incision within the 
wall and uterus instead of through the vagina. CPD is very rare. According to the American Pregnancy Association, CPD only occurs in approximately one among every 250 pregnancies.



Macrosomia occurs when a newborn is far 
larger than average. A newborn is diagnosed with macrosomia if they weigh quite 8 pounds, 13 ounces, no matter when they’re born. Approximately 9 percent of babies born worldwide have macrosomia.

This condition can cause problems during childbirth which will 
sometimes end in injury. It also puts the baby at an increased risk for health problems after birth. There are more risks to the mother and baby when a baby’s birth weight is bigger than 9 pounds, 15 ounces.


Precipitous labor

On average, the three stages of labor last about six to 18 hours. With precipitous labor, these stages progress far more 
quickly, lasting only three to 5 hours. Precipitous labor, also called rapid labor, may occur for several reasons:


Ø  Your uterus is contracting very strongly, helping to push the baby out more rapidly.

Ø  Your birth canal is compliant, making it easier for the baby to leave the womb.

Ø  You have a history of precipitous labor.

Ø  Your baby is smaller than average.

Precipitous labor presents several risks for the mother. These include vaginal or cervical tearing, heavy bleeding, and shock following birth. Precipitous labor can also 
make your baby more vulnerable to infection if they’re born in an unsterile environment, like a car or bathroom.



Notice: Please consult your doctor before following any instruction of


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