What is premature rupture of membranes?
Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) may be a rupture (breaking open) of the membranes (amniotic sac) before labor begins. If PROM occurs before 37 weeks of pregnancy, it's called preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM).
PROM occurs in about 8 to 10 percent of all pregnancies. PPROM (before 37 weeks) accounts for one fourth to at least one third of all preterm births.
What causes premature rupture of membranes?
Rupture of the membranes near the top of pregnancy (term) could also be caused by a natural weakening of the membranes or from the force of contractions. Before term, PPROM is usually thanks to an infection within the uterus. Other factors which will be linked to PROM include the following:
Ø Low socioeconomic conditions (as women in lower socioeconomic conditions are less likely to receive proper prenatal care)
Ø Sexually transmitted infections, like chlamydia and gonorrhea
Ø Previous preterm birth
Ø Vaginal bleeding
Ø Cigarette smoking during pregnancy
Ø Unknown causes
Why is premature rupture of membranes a concern?
PROM may be a complicating think about as many together third of premature births. a big risk of PPROM is that the baby is extremely likely to change state within a couple of days of the membrane rupture. Another major risk of PROM is development of a significant infection of the placental tissues called chorioamnionitis, which may be very dangerous for mother and baby. Other complications which will occur with PROM include placental abruption (early detachment of the placenta from the uterus), compression of the duct , cesarean birth, and postpartum (after delivery) infection.
What are the symptoms of PROM?
The following are the foremost common symptoms of PROM. However, each woman may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:
Ø Leaking or a gush of watery fluid from the vagina
Ø Constant wetness in underwear
If you notice any symptoms of PROM, make certain to call your doctor as soon as possible. The symptoms of PROM may resemble other medical conditions. Consult your doctor for a diagnosis.
How is premature rupture of membranes diagnosed?
In addition to an entire medical record and physical examination, PROM could also be diagnosed in several ways, including the following:
Ø An examination of the cervix (may show fluid leaking from the cervical opening)
Ø Testing of the pH (acid or alkaline) of the fluid
Ø Looking at the dried fluid under a microscope (may show a characteristic fern-like pattern)
Ø Ultrasound. A diagnostic imaging technique that uses high-frequency sound waves and a computer to make images of blood vessels, tissues, and organs. Ultrasounds are wont to view internal organs as they function, and to assess what proportion fluid is round the baby.
Treatment for premature rupture of membranes
Specific treatment for PROM are going to be determined by your doctor based on:
Ø Your pregnancy, overall health, and medical record
Ø Extent of the condition
Ø Your tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies
Ø Expectations for the course of the condition
Ø Your opinion or preference
Treatment for premature rupture of membranes may include:
Ø Expectant management (in only a few cases of PPROM, the membranes may seal over and therefore the fluid may stop leaking without treatment, although this is often uncommon unless PROM was from a procedure, like amniocentesis, early in gestation)
Ø Monitoring for signs of infection, like fever, pain, increased fetal pulse , and/or laboratory tests.
Ø Giving the mother medications called corticosteroids which will help mature the lungs of the fetus (lung immaturity may be a major problem of premature babies). However, corticosteroids may mask an infection within the uterus.
Ø Antibiotics (to prevent or treat infections)
Ø Tocolytics. Medications wont to stop preterm labor.
Ø Women with PPROM usually deliver at 34 weeks if stable. If there are signs of abruption, chorioamnionitis, or fetal compromise, then early delivery would be necessary.)
Prevention of premature rupture of membranes
Unfortunately, there's no thanks to actively prevent PROM. However, this condition does have a robust link with cigarette smoking and mothers should stop smoking as soon as possible.
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