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The female reproductive system : Overview

How does the feminine genital system work?

The female genital system 
provides several functions. The ovaries produce the egg cells, called the ova or oocytes. The oocytes are then transported to the Fallopian tube where fertilization by a sperm may occur.


The embryo then moves to the uterus, where the uterine lining has thickened in response to the traditional hormones of the reproductive cycle. Once within the uterus, the embryo can implant into thickened uterine lining and still develop. If implantation doesn't happen , the uterine lining is shed as menorrhea . additionally , the feminine genital system produces female sex hormones that maintain the reproductive cycle.

During menopause, the feminine 
genital system gradually stops making the feminine hormones necessary for the reproductive cycle to figure . At now , menstrual cycles can become irregular and eventually stop. One year after menstrual cycles stop, the lady is taken into account to be menopausal.

What parts make-up the feminine 

The female reproductive anatomy includes both external and internal structures.

The function of the external female reproductive structures (the genital) is twofold: To enable sperm to enter the body and to guard 
the interior genital organs from infectious organisms.

The main external structures of the feminine 
genital system include:

Labia majora - The labium 
(“large lips”) enclose and protect the opposite external reproductive organs. During puberty, hair growth occurs on the skin of the labium , which also contain sweat and oil-secreting glands.

Labia minora - The labium 
(“small lips”) can have a spread of sizes and shapes. They lie just inside the labium , and surround the openings to the vagina (the canal that joins the lower a part of the uterus to the surface of the body) and urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the surface of the body). This skin is extremely delicate and may become easily irritated and swollen.

Bartholin’s glands - These glands are located next to the vaginal opening on all sides 
and produce a fluid (mucus) secretion.

Clitoris - The 2 
labium meet at the clitoris, a small, sensitive protrusion that's like the penis in males. The clitoris is roofed by a fold of skin, called the prepuce, which is analogous to the foreskin at the top of the penis. just like the penis, the clitoris is extremely sensitive to stimulation and may become erect.

The internal reproductive organs include:

Vagina - The vagina may be a 
canal that joins the cervix (the lower a part of uterus) to the surface of the body. It is also referred to as the passage.

Uterus (womb) - The uterus may be a 
hollow, pear-shaped organ that's the house to a developing fetus. The uterus is split into two parts: the cervix, which is that the lower part that opens into the vagina, and therefore the main body of the uterus, called the corpus. The corpus can easily expand to carry a developing baby. A canal through the cervix allows sperm to enter and menorrhea to exit.

Ovaries - The ovaries are small, oval-shaped glands that are located on either side of the uterus. The ovaries produce eggs and hormones.

Fallopian tubes - These are narrow tubes that are attached to the upper a part of 
the uterus and function pathways for the ova (egg cells) to travel from the ovaries to the uterus. Fertilization of an egg by a sperm normally occurs within the fallopian tubes. The embryo then moves to the uterus, where it implants to the uterine lining.

What happens during the menstrual cycle?

Females of reproductive age (beginning anywhere from 11 to 16 years of age) experience cycles of hormonal activity that repeat at about one-month intervals. Menstru means "monthly” – resulting in 
the term cycle . With every cycle, a woman’s body prepares for a possible pregnancy, whether or not that's the woman’s intention. The term menstruation refers to the periodic shedding of the uterine lining. many ladies call the times that they notice vaginal bleeding their “period,” “menstrual” or cycle.

The average cycle 
takes about 28 days and occurs in phases. These phases include:


Ø  The follicular phase (development of the egg)

Ø  The ovulatory phase (release of the egg)

Ø  The secretory phase (hormone levels decrease if the egg doesn't implant)

There are four major hormones (chemicals that stimulate or regulate the activity of cells or organs) involved within the 
cycle . These hormones include:


Ø  Follicle-stimulating hormone

Ø  Luteinizing hormone

Ø  Estrogen

Ø  Progesterone



Notice: Please consult your doctor before following any instruction of

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